Primarily the type IIx muscle fibers. These are the “fast-twitch” muscle fibers used in explosive movements like weight training and sprinting. In fact, it has also been concluded that Carnosine levels are found in higher concentrations in equine athletes whose performance demands serious anaerobic output.
Weight training can create intense burning sensation. This is because the pH in our muscles and blood decrease, causing them to become too acidic, hence the intense burning sensation. To briefly explain what is happening, during short-term, high-intensity exercise, lactate accumulates as the result of lactic acid production being greater than its removal.
It is the Hydrogen ions (H+) that are produced with lactic acid accumulation as part of the process of energy release rather than the lactate that causes pH to decrease and not the lactic acid, which is mistaken by many as the guilty party. As the pH in the muscles decrease so does your performance. The same goes for the equine athlete. As a result lactate accumulation is associated with acidosis for several reasons, but it is important to recognize that it is unbuffered protons like H+ that pose complications for the athletes.
So exactly what role does Carnosine play in all of this? By means of preventing some enzymatic reactions that lead to this increased acidic environment, Carnosine may well be the definitive H+ buffering agent. Carnosine helps to put out the burning fire in the equine athlete’s muscles that is felt before reaching failure and as a result enhances muscular performance.
What this means is that it will allow your horse to perform better and have that extra burst when it counts the most, in the deep stretch or that last jump and propel you to victory. What it really comes down to is this: The more Carnosine in your muscles, the better your horse will perform. Period.
Compared to other tissues in a horse’s body, muscle tissue contains anywhere from 2 - 1,000 times greater concentrations of carnosine. This highlights the importance that carnosine has in a horse’s health, longevity, and performance. Supplying carnosine directly to the muscle tissue is going to have far-reaching impacts on the on the horse’s recovery, training, and aging.